Auvinen V-V. et al. 2019
"The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hydrogels on two human derivatives during freeze-drying. Native NFC hydrogel is a suitable platform to culture 3D cell spheroids and a hydrogel processed further, called anionic NFC (ANFC) hydrogel, is an excellent platform for controlled release of proteins. Moreover, it has been shown to be compatible with freeze-drying when correct lyoprotectants are implemented. Freeze-drying is a method, where substance is first frozen, and then vacuum dried trough sublimation of water in order to achieve dry matter without the loss of the original three-dimensional structures.
The first chosen human derivative was adipose tissue extract (ATE) which is a cell-free growth factor-rich preparation capable of promoting growth of regenerative cells. The release of growth factors from the freeze-dried mixture of ATE and ANFC was compared to that of non-freeze-dried control mixtures. The release profiles remained at the same level after freeze-drying. The second derivative was hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell spheroids which were evaluated before and after freeze-drying. The 3D structure of the HepG2 cell spheroids was preserved and the spheroids retained 18% of their metabolic activity after rehydration. However, the freeze-dried and rehydrated HepG2 cell spheroids did not proliferate and the cell membrane was damaged by fusion and formation of crystals."
Auvinen V-V. et al. Effects of nanofibrillated cellulose hydrogels on adipose tissue extract and hepatocellular carcinoma cell spheroids in freeze-drying. Cryobiology 2019. In Press.