Paukkonen, H., M. Kunnari, P. Laurén, T. Hakkarainen, V.-V. Auvinen, T. Oksanen, R. Koivuniemi, M. Yliperttula and T. Laaksonen (2017)
"Concentrated 3% and 6.5% anionic nanofibrillar cellulose (ANFC) hydrogels were introduced as matrix reservoirs for controlled delivery applications of small molecules and proteins. A further aim was to study how the freeze-drying and subsequent rehydration of ANFC hydrogel affects the rheological properties and drug release of selected model compounds from the reconstructed hydrogels. It was demonstrated that the 3% and 6.5% ANFC hydrogels can be freeze-dried with suitable excipients into highly porous aerogel structures and redispersed back into the hydrogel form without significant change in the rheological properties. Freeze-drying did not affect the drug release properties from redispersed ANFC hydrogels, indicating that these systems could be stored in the dry form and only redispersed when needed. For large molecules, the diffusion coefficients were significantly smaller when higher ANFC fiber content was used, indicating that the amount of ANFC fibers in the hydrogel can be used to control the release rate. The release of small molecules was controlled with the ANFC fiber content only to a moderate extent. The results indicate that ANFC hydrogel can be used for controlled delivery of several types of molecules and that the hydrogel can be successfully freeze-dried and redispersed."
Paukkonen, H., M. Kunnari, P. Laurén, T. Hakkarainen, V.-V. Auvinen, T. Oksanen, R. Koivuniemi, M. Yliperttula and T. Laaksonen (2017). "Nanofibrillar cellulose hydrogels and reconstructed hydrogels as matrices for controlled drug release." International Journal of Pharmaceutics 532(1): 269-280.