Merivaara, A., J. Zini, E. Koivunotko, S. Valkonen, O. Korhonen, F. M. Fernandes and M. Yliperttula (2021)
"Freeze-drying is the most widespread method to preserve protein drugs and vaccines in a dry form facilitating their storage and transportation without the laborious and expensive cold chain. Extending this method for the preservation of natural biomaterials and cells in a dry form would provide similar benefits, but most results in the domain are still below expectations. In this review, rather than consider freeze-drying as a traditional black box we “break it” through a detailed process thinking approach. We discuss freeze-drying from process thinking aspects, introduce the chemical, physical, and mechanical environments important in this process, and present advanced biophotonic process analytical technology. In the end, we review the state of the art in the freeze-drying of the biomaterials, extracellular vesicles, and cells. We suggest that the rational design of the experiment and implementation of advanced biophotonic tools are required to successfully preserve the natural biomaterials and cells by freeze-drying. We discuss this change of paradigm with existing literature and elaborate on our perspective based on our new unpublished results."
Merivaara, A., J. Zini, E. Koivunotko, S. Valkonen, O. Korhonen, F. M. Fernandes and M. Yliperttula (2021). "Preservation of biomaterials and cells by freeze-drying: Change of paradigm." Journal of Controlled Release 336: 480-498.