Sarvazyan, N. (2020)
"This chapter discusses different types of scaffold material that can provide structural support for cells to attach, survive, and grow into a 3D tissue. These scaffold materials can include molecules that exist biologically as well as synthetic ones, yielding scaffolds with a wide range of viscoelastic properties. Depending on their chemical composition, materials used in scaffolding can be classified into four broad categories: ceramics, polymers, composites, and decellularized matrix. A list of 10 key questions to ask should aid students in selecting scaffold material for their chosen application. The second part of the chapter is devoted to the use of decellularized tissue (DCT) as the most suitable natural scaffold for tissue growth. The methods to obtain DCT are covered, including freezing and defrosting, using hypo- and hyperosmolar solutions, solvents (alcohol, methanol, chloroform, and acetone), acids and bases, chelators, enzymes, and detergents. Main effects of these various reagents on quality of DCT are discussed. The latter can be evaluated using three complementary means: the degree of remaining cellular content, the lack of detergents and salt remnants, and the integrity of ECM architecture."
Sarvazyan, N. (2020). Scaffolds and Tissue Decellularization. Tissue Engineering: Principles, Protocols, and Practical Exercises. N. Sarvazyan. Cham, Springer International Publishing: 103-114.