3D cell culture systems mimic the microenvironment of cells, which is crucial in drug research and other studies on how cells respond to external factors. These cell cultures are important in biomedical research because they provide a standardized and repeatable environment in which to study cell behaviour and how cells react to different environmental factors. Spheroids are simpler 3D models, whereas organoids are more complex structures that mimic the structure and function of tissues and organs.
What is organoid cell culture?
Organoid cultures mimic the structure and function of real organs, such as lung or heart. They are formed by guiding stem cells to develop into specific cell types. These cell types can then organize themselves into 3D structures. They can eventually develop into tiny versions of the organs, they are derived from, making them valuable tools for 3D research studies.
Organoids can develop complex interactions between cells and include multiple cell types that work together to perform organ-like functions, making them more like real organs. Although organoids are still simpler than real organs as they lack certain components such as blood vessels and nerves. Organoids have a wide range of applications, including drug screening, personalized medicine, and cancer research.
What is spheroid cell culture?
Spheroid cultures are simpler compared to organoids and real organs. They are compact, rounded three-dimensional cellular structures, typically consisting of only one cell type. As a result, spheroid cell cultures cannot replicate the intricate cellular collaboration seen in real organs, such as the complex cell-to-cell interactions of blood vessels, nerves, and other vital tissues.
These straightforward spheroid models are favored for drug screening due to their lower complexity compared to organoids, making them more manageable to study. They contribute to the understanding of cellular behaviour and development, often serving as basic models for drug screening thanks to their structural simplicity. Spheroids have the potential to revolutionize the way diseases are treated as they provide an easy way to grow and study specific cells in a controlled environment.
What is the difference between organoids and spheroids?
Organoids and spheroids are both 3D cellular structures cultivated in the laboratory, but they exhibit significant differences. Let's dive deeper into why organoids possess greater complexity than spheroids.
Organoids consist of multiple distinct cell types and can be grown in the laboratory through stem cell differentiation or by isolating and cultivating small tissue fragments. In contrast, spheroids often consist of a single cell type, such as cancer cells.
One of the most notable contrast lies in their diversity – organoids closely emulate natural organs due to their multi-cell type composition and ability to form cellular interactions like cell communication and organized tissue structures. Spheroids can form easily as cells aggregate but their structural complexity is not as advanced as organoids due to their limited cell type diversity.
Regarding long-term cultivation, organoids perform well. They are better suited for sustained growth and can be cultured in the laboratory for several months. This is because they regenerate and differentiate over time. Conversely, spheroids can form quickly, but maintaining them over extended periods can be challenging. Prolonged cultivation might lead to the loss of normal cell function and differentiation, making their long-term cultivation difficult.
In summary, organoids and spheroids have differences in their complexity, their ability to mimic organ structures and functions, and their suitability for long-term cultivation. While spheroids provide valuable insights into cell behaviour, organoids offer a more detailed representation of natural organs and their complex processes.
Organoid and spheroid cell culture models
Various 3D cell culture models can be used to cultivate organoids and spheroids, offering controlled environments that facilitate their growth and development. The selection of a specific 3D cell culture model depends on the research objectives and the desired characteristics of the organoids or spheroids under investigation. These models can be tissue or cell type specific. To explore different models used in 3D cell culture, you can refer to the following link for more information.
Applications of Organoid and Spheroid 3D Cell Cultures
Organoid and spheroid 3D cell cultures have important applications in biomedical research. They are versatile tools used in various research areas, allowing scientists to explore complex biological processes and develop targeted therapies. Both organoids and spheroids contribute to our understanding of cell biology, disease mechanisms, and treatments.
Organoids, which mimic real organs, have proven valuable in drug testing, personalized medicine, and cancer research. They help scientists study organ development, model diseases, and improve hit-to-lead optimization in drug discovery. Organoids have provided insights into cancer mutations and serve as powerful tools for researchers in these fields. Their ability to replicate the complex behaviour of cells and tissues makes organoids particularly advantageous.
Spheroids are particularly useful in drug testing due to their ease of study. They aid researchers in understanding cell behaviour, predicting drug effectiveness in cancer research, and developing stem cells for studying neural diseases. Spheroids are valuable for studying cancer as they can simulate the three-dimensional growth of tumor cells.
In the world of 3D cell cultures, organoids and spheroids live within a supportive matrix or scaffold. This environment enables cells to thrive and interact naturally in three dimensions, mirroring the conditions of real tissues and organs. This method offers a more precise insight into cell behaviour compared to 2D cultures, revolutionizing biological research.